Greek Verbal Formulas

The following chart gives a convenient one-stop place to compare and contrast the various verbal formulas. Use the following along with the Four-Quad chart to understand verbal formations.

See the verbal endings here.

aug.stemconnectorverbal ending
Aorist Activestem+ σα +B
Aorist Middlestem+ σα + D
Aorist Passivestem,
may
change
+ θη + B
Future Active+ σ + c.v. +A
Future Middle+ σ + c.v. +C
Future Passivesame as
Aorist
passive
stem
+ θησ + c.v. +C
Imperfect Active+ c.v. + B
Imperfect Middle+ c.v. + D
Perfect Activestem,
may
change
+ κα + A
Perfect Middlestem,
may
change
+C
Present Active+ c.v. + A
Present Middle+ c.v. + C
Second Aorist
Active
aor.
stem
+ c.v. + B
Second Aorist
Middle
aor.
stem
+ c.v. + D

c.v. = connecting vowel, aug. = augment

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