Greek Word: σταυροω

Today – stauroo

In the Greek: σταυροω

Pronunciation (Erasmian): stow-ro’-oh

Definition/approximate English equivalent: Ι crucify; to crucify, to stake down.

Example of its use:

  • Matthew 20:19 (Tischendorf): καὶ παραδώσουσιν αὐτὸν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν εἰς τὸ ἐμπαῖξαι καὶ μαστιγῶσαι καὶ σταυρῶσαι, καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθήσεται.

Notes: This word is a verb. In Greek, verb endings change (and sometimes the beginnings too) to fit its use in the sentence. The verb communicates not just its meaning but also person and plurality. Verbs have no tense but they do have aspects. In the above example, we see one of the more unique endings as this is an Aorist Active Infinitive verb form. Think “to” verbs as in “to crucify” rather than “I crucify”. Following with this uniqueness, this form of the verb doesn’t have person or plurality. There is only the action.

There are additional verbs joined to it before joined by the “kai” which often acts like “and”. If you look, you’ll notice they too end in σαι/αι and are also Aorist Active Infinitive (aspect/tense form – voice – mood).

As an additional note: you will find teachers who refer to aspect as “tense form” or even “tense” but they do not mean it in the exact same sense as English tenses – usually. There just isn’t a 1 to 1 equivalence to be found. There are generally two camps, however, among Greek scholars – those who says tenses exist and those who says there’s no such thing, there’s only aspect. Sort of muddies the waters I know but I point this out to help you decipher why different teachers may refer to things differently.

Greek Word: ημερα

Today – haymera

In the Greek: ημερα

Pronunciation (Erasmian): hay – mehr – ah

Definition/approximate English equivalent: the day, daytime.

Example of its use:

  • Matt. 24:36 (Tischendorf): Περὶ δὲ τῆς ἡμέρας ἐκείνης καὶ ὥρας οὐδεὶς οἶδεν, οὐδὲ οἱ ἄγγελοι τῶν οὐρανῶν οὐδὲ ὁ υἱός, εἰ μὴ ὁ πατὴρ μόνος.

Notes: This word normally has what looks like an apostrophe called a rough breathing mark (which can be seen in the example above) over the η character facing to the right. This is important as this character normally has an “ay” sort of sound but with the breathing mark gives an h sound to the beginning. In fact, this is how the h sound is provided in Greek – through the rough breathing mark.

Greek Word: αγγελος

Today – angelos

In the Greek: αγγελος

Pronunciation (Erasmian): ahn – geh – los

Definition/approximate English equivalent: messenger, angel.

Example of its use:

  • Matt. 11:10 (Tischendorf): οὗτός ἐστιν περὶ οὗ γέγραπται: ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἀποστέλλω τὸν ἄγγελόν μου πρὸ προσώπου σου, ὃς κατασκευάσει τὴν ὁδόν σου ἔμπροσθέν σου.

Notes: Common masculine noun. In the above, we see this masculine noun in the singular accusative form.

Greek Word: μαθητης

Today – mathaytays

In the Greek: μαθητης

Pronunciation (Erasmian): mah – thay – tays

Definition/approximate English equivalent: disciple, student, pupil.

Example of its use:

  • Luke 12:1 (Tischendorf): Ἐν οἷς ἐπισυναχθεισῶν τῶν μυριάδων τοῦ ὄχλου, ὥστε καταπατεῖν ἀλλήλους, ἤρξατο λέγειν πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ πρῶτον: προσέχετε ἑαυτοῖς ἀπὸ τῆς ζύμης τῶν Φαρισαίων, ἥτις ἐστὶν ὑπόκρισις.

Notes: In this instance, this noun takes on a plural form.

Greek Word: κυριος

Today – koorios

In the Greek: κυριος

Pronunciation (Erasmian): koo – ree – ohs

Definition/approximate English equivalent: lord, Lord, master, sir.

Example of its use:

  • John 1:23 ἔφη: ἐγὼ φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ: εὐθύνατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου, καθὼς εἶπεν Ἡσαί̈ας ὁ προφήτης.

Notes: Here, the word takes on the genitive singular form and is a masculine gender.

Greek Word: κοινωνος

Today – koinonos

In the Greek: κοινωνος

Pronunciation (Erasmian): koy – no – nos

Definition/approximate English equivalent: companion, partner, sharer.

Example of its use:

  • 1 Corinthians 10:18 (Tischendorf): βλέπετε τὸν Ἰσραὴλ κατὰ σάρκα: οὐχ οἱ ἐσθίοντες τὰς θυσίας κοινωνοὶ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου εἰσίν;

Notes: Here, the word takes on the nominative plural form. Remember that nominative refers to a subject in the sentence.

Greek Word: φως

Today – foce

In the Greek: φως

Pronunciation (Erasmian): fohs

Definition/approximate English equivalent: light, the light, or anything emitting light. Also used metaphorically for light.

Example of its use:

  • John 1:8 οὐκ ἦν ἐκεῖνος τὸ φῶς, ἀλλʼ ἵνα μαρτυρήσῃ περὶ τοῦ φωτός.

Notes: In this example, there are two uses. The first is neuter and singular as well as the lexical form (the form of the word you’d look it up by in a lexicon). The second appearance is of course neuter (as it is a neuter word) and is singular to agree with the sentence but takes the genitive – or the often called “possessive”.

Greek Word: φονος

Today – phonos

In the Greek: φονος

Pronunciation (Erasmian): fon – ohs

Definition/approximate English equivalent: murder, slaughter, be slain.

Example of its use:

  • Acts 9:1 (Tischendorf): Ὁ δὲ Σαῦλος ἔτι ἐμπνέων ἀπειλῆς καὶ φόνου εἰς τοὺς μαθητὰς τοῦ κυρίου, προσελθὼν τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ

Note: In this example, our Greek word is taking on the masculine singular, genitive declension form.

Greek Word: θανατος

Today – thanatos

In the Greek: θανατος

Pronunciation (Erasmian): than -aht -ohs (the a in than being like that in can)

Definition/approximate English equivalent: it means the death of the body; power of death; wicked dead in hell; etc. It is a masculine noun effectively meaning “death”.

Most people today are familiar with the word as it is the name of a key bad guy in the Marvel films (Avengers: Infinity War and then Endgame) – a fitting name as he brings death to countless lives. I would point out that Marvel pronounces the word with an English pronunciation however.

Example of its use:

  • Revelation 13:3 (Tischendorf): καὶ μίαν ἐκ τῶν κεφαλῶν αὐτοῦ ὡς ἐσφαγμένην εἰς θάνατον, καὶ ἡ πληγὴ τοῦ θανάτου αὐτοῦ ἐθεραπεύθη. καὶ ἐθαύμασεν ὅλη ἡ γῆ ὀπίσω τοῦ θηρίου,

Note: In this example, our Greek word is taking on the singular, genitive declension form.

Greek Word: δοξα

Today – doxa

In the Greek: δοξα

Pronunciation (Erasmian): dohk – sah

Definition/approximate English equivalent: glory, majesty, esteem, fame, etc.

Example of its use:

  • Matthew 4:8 (Tischendorf): πάλιν παραλαμβάνει αὐτὸν ὁ διάβολος εἰς ὄρος ὑψηλὸν λίαν καὶ δείκνυσιν αὐτῷ πάσας τὰς βασιλείας τοῦ κόσμου καὶ τὴν δόξαν αὐτῶν,

Note: Endings are often different because of the word’s place/use in the sentence. As you study Greek, you find nouns have to match with parts of the surrounding context of terms in gender, case, and plurality – among other things – and that’s what’s going on here.