Greek Word: και

Today – kai

In the Greek: και

Pronunciation (Erasmian): kih (long vowel I sound)

Definition/approximate English equivalent: (conjunction) and, also, even, indeed, but

Example of its use:

  • Matthew 20:19 (Tischendorf): καὶ παραδώσουσιν αὐτὸν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν εἰς τὸ ἐμπαῖξαι καὶ μαστιγῶσαι καὶ σταυρῶσαι, καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθήσεται.

Hebrew Tidbit #4

Let’s look at a Hebrew word for this one. A rather well-know word would be shalom meaning peace. It is also commonly used as a greeting.

In Hebrew characters only, the word appears as follows . . .

שלום

If vowel markings are added, shalom takes on the following appearance . . .

שָׁלוֹם

The dot above the shin (the w looking character to the right) is not a vowel marker but the others are vowels.

Remember! Hebrew is read right to left. It is that w looking character that provides the sh sound to shalom.

Hebrew Tidbit #3

There are varying font styles in Hebrew as you would also find in other languages like English. Hebrew even has a cursive method of writing, but what I want to focus on today is how Hebrew can be found written with or without vowel markings.

Personally, I prefer Hebrew written with the vowel markings but there is much modern material written without them and you simply have to have memorized the right vowel sounds or infer from context the correct pronunciation.

Here are the vowel names: (Please note that if you look around online you will likely find multiple spellings to some of these.)

  • patah
  • segol
  • hireq
  • qames-hatup
  • qibbus
  • qames
  • sere
  • holem
  • qames-he
  • sere-yod
  • hireq-yod
  • holem-waw
  • sureq

In addition, there is a shewa as well which is more like a “half-vowel” when pronounced.

Hebrew Tidbit #2

We are used to calling our collection of letters the alphabet and we use them for our many words including every thing I have written in this sentence. Hebrew has its own set of characters and its own “alphabet” except it goes by a slightly different name.

In Hebrew, their collection of letters is the aleph-bet. It looks and sounds very similar to our own name in English. The name comes specifically from the first two characters of the Hebrew aleph-bet. They are א (aleph) and ב (bet). Rather simple, right?

That’s all for now!

Hebrew Tidbit #1

Did you know?

In Hebrew, the text is read and written from right to left instead of from left to right as it would be in English and many Western languages.

Sentences also do not come to end in a period. Instead there is a : looking symbol at the end of verses. You have to figure out where we would put our punctuation by first reading the Hebrew text and understanding everything in context (like commas, periods, etc.).

That’s all for today!

Greek Word: σταυροω

Today – stauroo

In the Greek: σταυροω

Pronunciation (Erasmian): stow-ro’-oh

Definition/approximate English equivalent: Ι crucify; to crucify, to stake down.

Example of its use:

  • Matthew 20:19 (Tischendorf): καὶ παραδώσουσιν αὐτὸν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν εἰς τὸ ἐμπαῖξαι καὶ μαστιγῶσαι καὶ σταυρῶσαι, καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθήσεται.

Notes: This word is a verb. In Greek, verb endings change (and sometimes the beginnings too) to fit its use in the sentence. The verb communicates not just its meaning but also person and plurality. Verbs have no tense but they do have aspects. In the above example, we see one of the more unique endings as this is an Aorist Active Infinitive verb form. Think “to” verbs as in “to crucify” rather than “I crucify”. Following with this uniqueness, this form of the verb doesn’t have person or plurality. There is only the action.

There are additional verbs joined to it before joined by the “kai” which often acts like “and”. If you look, you’ll notice they too end in σαι/αι and are also Aorist Active Infinitive (aspect/tense form – voice – mood).

As an additional note: you will find teachers who refer to aspect as “tense form” or even “tense” but they do not mean it in the exact same sense as English tenses – usually. There just isn’t a 1 to 1 equivalence to be found. There are generally two camps, however, among Greek scholars – those who says tenses exist and those who says there’s no such thing, there’s only aspect. Sort of muddies the waters I know but I point this out to help you decipher why different teachers may refer to things differently.

Greek Word: ημερα

Today – haymera

In the Greek: ημερα

Pronunciation (Erasmian): hay – mehr – ah

Definition/approximate English equivalent: the day, daytime.

Example of its use:

  • Matt. 24:36 (Tischendorf): Περὶ δὲ τῆς ἡμέρας ἐκείνης καὶ ὥρας οὐδεὶς οἶδεν, οὐδὲ οἱ ἄγγελοι τῶν οὐρανῶν οὐδὲ ὁ υἱός, εἰ μὴ ὁ πατὴρ μόνος.

Notes: This word normally has what looks like an apostrophe called a rough breathing mark (which can be seen in the example above) over the η character facing to the right. This is important as this character normally has an “ay” sort of sound but with the breathing mark gives an h sound to the beginning. In fact, this is how the h sound is provided in Greek – through the rough breathing mark.

Greek Word: αγγελος

Today – angelos

In the Greek: αγγελος

Pronunciation (Erasmian): ahn – geh – los

Definition/approximate English equivalent: messenger, angel.

Example of its use:

  • Matt. 11:10 (Tischendorf): οὗτός ἐστιν περὶ οὗ γέγραπται: ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἀποστέλλω τὸν ἄγγελόν μου πρὸ προσώπου σου, ὃς κατασκευάσει τὴν ὁδόν σου ἔμπροσθέν σου.

Notes: Common masculine noun. In the above, we see this masculine noun in the singular accusative form.

Greek Word: μαθητης

Today – mathaytays

In the Greek: μαθητης

Pronunciation (Erasmian): mah – thay – tays

Definition/approximate English equivalent: disciple, student, pupil.

Example of its use:

  • Luke 12:1 (Tischendorf): Ἐν οἷς ἐπισυναχθεισῶν τῶν μυριάδων τοῦ ὄχλου, ὥστε καταπατεῖν ἀλλήλους, ἤρξατο λέγειν πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ πρῶτον: προσέχετε ἑαυτοῖς ἀπὸ τῆς ζύμης τῶν Φαρισαίων, ἥτις ἐστὶν ὑπόκρισις.

Notes: In this instance, this noun takes on a plural form.

Greek Word: κυριος

Today – koorios

In the Greek: κυριος

Pronunciation (Erasmian): koo – ree – ohs

Definition/approximate English equivalent: lord, Lord, master, sir.

Example of its use:

  • John 1:23 ἔφη: ἐγὼ φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ: εὐθύνατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου, καθὼς εἶπεν Ἡσαί̈ας ὁ προφήτης.

Notes: Here, the word takes on the genitive singular form and is a masculine gender.