Greek Word: φονος

Today – phonos

In the Greek: φονος

Pronunciation (Erasmian): fon – ohs

Definition/approximate English equivalent: murder, slaughter, be slain.

Example of its use:

  • Acts 9:1 (Tischendorf): Ὁ δὲ Σαῦλος ἔτι ἐμπνέων ἀπειλῆς καὶ φόνου εἰς τοὺς μαθητὰς τοῦ κυρίου, προσελθὼν τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ

Note: In this example, our Greek word is taking on the masculine singular, genitive declension form.

Greek Word: θανατος

Today – thanatos

In the Greek: θανατος

Pronunciation (Erasmian): than -aht -ohs (the a in than being like that in can)

Definition/approximate English equivalent: it means the death of the body; power of death; wicked dead in hell; etc. It is a masculine noun effectively meaning “death”.

Most people today are familiar with the word as it is the name of a key bad guy in the Marvel films (Avengers: Infinity War and then Endgame) – a fitting name as he brings death to countless lives. I would point out that Marvel pronounces the word with an English pronunciation however.

Example of its use:

  • Revelation 13:3 (Tischendorf): καὶ μίαν ἐκ τῶν κεφαλῶν αὐτοῦ ὡς ἐσφαγμένην εἰς θάνατον, καὶ ἡ πληγὴ τοῦ θανάτου αὐτοῦ ἐθεραπεύθη. καὶ ἐθαύμασεν ὅλη ἡ γῆ ὀπίσω τοῦ θηρίου,

Note: In this example, our Greek word is taking on the singular, genitive declension form.

Greek Word: δοξα

Today – doxa

In the Greek: δοξα

Pronunciation (Erasmian): dohk – sah

Definition/approximate English equivalent: glory, majesty, esteem, fame, etc.

Example of its use:

  • Matthew 4:8 (Tischendorf): πάλιν παραλαμβάνει αὐτὸν ὁ διάβολος εἰς ὄρος ὑψηλὸν λίαν καὶ δείκνυσιν αὐτῷ πάσας τὰς βασιλείας τοῦ κόσμου καὶ τὴν δόξαν αὐτῶν,

Note: Endings are often different because of the word’s place/use in the sentence. As you study Greek, you find nouns have to match with parts of the surrounding context of terms in gender, case, and plurality – among other things – and that’s what’s going on here.

Greek Word: θεος

Today – theos.

In the Greek: θεος

Pronunciation (Erasmian): thay – ohs

Definition/approximate English equivalent: This one is quite straight-forward and it means god or God. Commonly this is the capitalized version referring to the one and only God; however, using the term in the plural, for example, can easily have a context of speaking about gods in general

Example of its use:

  • John 1:18 (Ιωαννην 1:18)
    • θεον ουδεις εωρακεν πωποτε: ο μονογενης υιος ο ων εις τον κολπον του πατρος, εκεινος εξηγησατο.

Note: accents have been left out in the above example. Also, the ending is different because of its place/use in the sentence. As you study Greek, you find nouns have to match with parts of the surrounding context of terms in gender, case, and plurality – among other things – and that’s what’s going on here.

Greek Word Tuesday

Welcome to the first Greek Word Tuesday!

Each Tuesday will bring another Koine Greek term found in the Greek New Testament. This is a great opportunity to brush up on Greek and/or to supplement learning.

Today we will get things started with logos.

In the Greek: λογος

Pronunciation (Erasmian): log – ahs

Definition/approximate English equivalent: Many have seen this translated to mean “word” but that’s not the only term in English it can be equivalent to. Others: statement, message, or Logos. As with anything in language translation, context is key!

Example of its use:

  • John 1:1 (Ιωαννην 1:1)
    • Εν αρχη ην ο λογος, και ο λογος ην προς τον θεον, και θεος ην ο λογος.

Note: accents have been left out in the above example.

Greek Verbal Formulas

The following chart gives a convenient one-stop place to compare and contrast the various verbal formulas. Use the following along with the Four-Quad chart to understand verbal formations.

See the verbal endings here.

aug.stemconnectorverbal ending
Aorist Activestem+ σα +B
Aorist Middlestem+ σα + D
Aorist Passivestem,
may
change
+ θη + B
Future Active+ σ + c.v. +A
Future Middle+ σ + c.v. +C
Future Passivesame as
Aorist
passive
stem
+ θησ + c.v. +C
Imperfect Active+ c.v. + B
Imperfect Middle+ c.v. + D
Perfect Activestem,
may
change
+ κα + A
Perfect Middlestem,
may
change
+C
Present Active+ c.v. + A
Present Middle+ c.v. + C
Second Aorist
Active
aor.
stem
+ c.v. + B
Second Aorist
Middle
aor.
stem
+ c.v. + D

c.v. = connecting vowel, aug. = augment

3rd Declension Greek Case Ending Practice (3 – 3)

Below is a simple 3-3 chart that appears blank for practicing the 3rd declension.

Mentally fill in the blank spaces and check your answers by looking at the chart below this one.

3

(M/F)

3

(N)

NS
GS
DS
AS
NP
GP
DP
AP

If you don’t recall the abbreviations used in the left column, they are as follows:

NS = nominative singular, GS = genitive singular, DS = dative singular, AS = assusative singular

NP = nominative plural, GS = genitive pl.,… & so on.

Check against the chart below to see how you did.

3

(M/F)

3

(N)

NS ς
GS ος ος
DS ι ι
AS α/ν
NP ες α
GP ων ων
DP σι(ν) σι(ν)
AP ας α

 

 

Greek Case Ending Practice (2-1-2)

Below is a simple 2-1-2 chart that appears blank.

Mentally fill in the blank spaces and check your answers by highlighting that box or boxes to see the hidden answer.

2 1 2
NS ος α / η ον
GS ου ας / ης ου
DS ᾳ / ῃ
AS ον αν / ην ον
NP οι αι α
GP ων ων ων
DP οις αις οις
AP ους ας α

If you don’t recall the abbreviations used in the left column, they are as follows:

NS = nominative singular, GS = genitive singular, DS = dative singular, AS = assusative singular

NP = nominative plural, GS = genitive pl.,… & so on.

 

If the above is difficult for you to read, check against the chart below.

2 1 2
NS ος α / η ον
GS ου ας / ης ου
DS ᾳ / ῃ
AS ον αν / ην ον
NP οι αι α
GP ων ων ων
DP οις αις οις
AP ους ας α

This practice includes the connected vowel.